May 26, 2023

Salmonellosis is a collection of diseases caused by infection with the Salmonella bacteria

Salmonella infections are classified as non motile serotypes (S. enterica Pullorum and S.enterica Gallinarum) and the many motile paratyphoid Salmonella.  

There are several different species which each manifest as a specific disease. 

Pullorum disease (PD):Pullorum disease, also referred to commonly as Bacillary White Diarrhea, is an acute systemic disease of young chicks, caused by infection with S. Pullorum. It is mainly a problem for newly hatched chicks, which begin to show clinical signs of infection within a couple weeks upon hatching. Chicks may be seen huddling under heat sources, making continuous faint chirping and peeping noises. These chicks will also develop white chalky droppings that cause them to develop white-pasted vents (known commonly as 'pasty butt').


Fowl typhoid (FT): Fowl typhoid is an acute or chronic septicemic disease that usually is most significant in growing and adult chickens and turkeys. It is caused by infection with S. Gallinarum. Clinical signs differ depending on the severity of the infection. Infected chickens often will die 5-10 days following when they first develop clinical signs.


Arizonosis: Arizonosis is a septicemic disease of young turkeys, sometimes chicks, caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (S. arizonae).

The disease presents in either acute or chronic form and is characterized by septicemia, neurological signs and blindness.


Paratyphoid (PT) Infection:Paratyphoid (PT) Infection is a common disease of chickens, usually more significant to younger chicks than for adults. It is caused by several different strains of Salmonella spp. The most common being S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis.


PD and FT testing has been incorporated into the requirements of the NPIP National Control Program, implemented in the United States to attempt to minimize the circulation of both diseases inflocks.


These Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution. Historically, S enterica Arizonae was placed in its own category, but it is now included with the paratyphoid SalmonellaS enterica Arizonae is an egg-transmitted disease primarily of young turkeys. In addition to the above nonmotile salmonellae, Salmonella paratyphoid infections in poultry are relatively common and have public health significance because of contaminated poultry product consumption.

S. enterica Pullorum and S enterica Gallinarum are highly host-adapted to chickens and turkeys. There are >2,500 non host-adapted species (paratyphoid) that may be transmitted to almost all animals.


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