Necrotic enteritis is one of the world’s most common poultry diseases affecting around 40% of commercial poultry. The disease is caused by the overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens type A and type C and its exotoxins in the small intestine. Clinical forms lead to a sudden increase in flock mortality and severe problems in a very short time. While in subclinical forms, it is characterized by impaired digestion. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli causes a systemic disease that is highly lethal in both broilers and layers. It is the leading cause of first-week mortality in layers. In addition, the Salmonella species has long been recognized as an important zoonotic pathogen of economic significance in animals and humans. Poultry products such as eggs are the common source of broad-host serovars of Salmonella enterica, the primary cause of foodborne-associated hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. The economic impact of enteric pathogens on global poultry production amounts to billions of dollars annually.
The species of clostridia present in pigs are Clostridium perfringens type A and C and Clostridium difficile. In the case of sows, this condition is associated with Clostridium novyi, Clostridium chauvoei and Clostridium septicum. Clostridia are generally normal inhabitants of the pig's intestine. When the suitable conditions are met, they multiply and cause damage related to the production of exotoxins. Overuse of antibiotics and high-protein diets are some of the most important predisposing factors. Clostridium problems are present throughout the world, and as there is a high prevalence, it is estimated that between 8-10% of digestive disorders in pigs correspond to this etiological agent. On the other hand, E. coli infection is one of the major diseases in the swine industry. It mainly causes illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. Post-weaning diarrhea, which is commonly associated with enterotoxigenic E. coli, is one of the most prevalent porcine diseases. In addition, Salmonella-induced disease can occur at any stage of the pig's lifecycle, although the risk is greatest for piglets. A variety of clinical conditions that Salmonella spp. can cause in sows. These include fever, depression, septicemia, pneumonia, meningitis, arthritis, and diarrhea. Pathogenic bacteria cause substantial economic losses each year to the global pig industry.
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has been the primary link to the development and spread of resistant bacteria. Probiotics and prebiotics are effective antibiotic growth promoter alternatives which have the same efficacy to overcome the drawback of microbial resistance and antibiotic residue. Complementing the actions of probiotics with prebiotics boosts the animal digestive system and allows for fast recovery from any adverse effects.
The development of the gut microbiota in the first few days of age is the foundation for optimal gut functionality and subsequent animal performance. The components in Pathonil work synergistically in eliminating the threat of enteric pathogens through the following steps:
Direct Antibacterial Activity
Pathonil's unique strain of Bacillus subtilis produces specific potent metabolites that directly affect pathogens such as Clostridia, Salmonella and E.coli in addition to its role in competitive exclusion.
Mannan-oligosaccharides help mitigates pathogen colonization in an animal's intestinal tract by adsorbing and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria.
Beta-glucans help modulate the immune system by being in contact with immune cell receptors, triggering them to fight off pathogens.